Oral Language: Words (Part 1 of 5)

 Words and Learning to Read and Reading to Learn

We move from a focus on sounds to words in understanding early literacy development. Children need to be able to identify words (to read them silently or to recognize and pronounce them in oral reading) as they read text. They also need to know the meaning of the words they read, which will be our primary focus at the word level. First a few links for word identification info/ideas.

Word Identification
Word identification instruction has a long history in learning to read and reading to learn. There are many systematic programs and approaches to teaching word identification skills.

http://www.readingrockets.org/search?cx=004997827699593338140%3Anptllrzhp78&cof=FORID%3A11&ie=UTF-8&as_q=phonics+teaching
http://www.readingrockets.org/article/254
http://www.readingrockets.org/helping/target/phonics
http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/matching_books_to_phonics_features
http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/findwhatworks.aspx

Generalizing word identification knowledge and skill to text reading. This is wide ranging issue to be addressed later in the discussion of Discourse/Text.

Word Meaning
Vocabulary knowledge is central to reading and reading comprehension. Five topics are of importance to be addressed over the next few weeks:

^Oral Language Development of Vocabulary—as the basis for reading vocabulary
^The Matthew Effect—the impact of early vocabulary development and the achievement gap
^Academic Vocabulary
^Vocabulary Differences in Narrative and Information Texts
^Vocabulary Instruction.

Oral Language Development & Vocabulary: Three perspectives

Speaking and Listening for Preschool Through Grade Three, Lauren B. Resnick and Catherine B. Snow, IRA, 2009

“Speaking and listening are the foundation of reading and writing. A child who does not have a large and fluent vocabulary will have difficulty with every aspect of reading, from recognizing or sounding out words to making sense of a story or directions.” (p. vi)

“From the time they are infants until they are about 8 years old, children learn most of what they know by hearing other people talk: Talking is the main way children get to know the world, understand complex events, and encounter different perspectives.” (p. 3)

* * * *
Harvard Graduate School of Education, Winter 2001 by Lori Hough

The beginning of the reading process…
“The reading process begins, of course, way before kids even walk into classes like McCaffrey’s. As Shonkoff, a former pediatrician and current director of Harvard’s Center on the Developing Child, says, “Kids learn to understand words before they speak them.” As soon as parents and caregivers pick up a cooing baby and coo back, the process begins, with the baby beginning to understand the back and forth of conversation.
By the time a child is 18 months old, Shonkoff writes in his book, From Neurons to Neighborhoods, their world is a language explosion, acquiring, on average, about nine new words a day, every day, through preschool.”
….
“By the time children enter formal education, it is estimated that they know the meaning of about 5,000 to 6,000 words when they hear them, and can probably recognize in print a handful of easily memorized “sight words” — words like “the” and “to” and “stop” that pop up often in books and on signs and menus.”

Read more: http://www.gse.harvard.edu/news-impact/2011/01/you-need-r-ee-d-to-read/#ixzz2xPHYEHeR

* * * *

Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto
The Importance of the Number of Words Known by Age Five for Later School Achievement by Andrew Biemiller,

“Children who do not know many words by the end of kindergarten often have poor reading comprehension in later grades. By the time children begin kindergarten, they have already acquired much of their language. They speak in sentences and they understand simple stories and simple explanations. By 5 years of age, most children probably know more than one or two thousand root word meanings.”

…..

“I estimate that by the beginning of kindergarten, children’s vocabulary size ranges from 2300 root word meanings (average for children with low vocabularies) to 4700 root word meanings (average for children with high vocabularies).

During the grades from kindergarten to grade two, the difference between children with small and large vocabularies continues to get larger. By the end of grade two, children in the low vocabulary group average 4000 root word meanings, children in the average vocabulary group know about 6000 meanings, and children in the large vocabulary group average 8000 meanings. These large vocabulary differences have developed before children have had much of an opportunity to build vocabulary from their own reading. Beginning readers (kindergarten-grade two) mainly read “primer” texts using relatively few words.”

…..
How Word Meanings are Learned

“In this section, I discuss how words are learned and how some children come to know many more words than other children. I will also discuss how home differences and child-care interventions affect word development.”

…..

“See Table 1 for a list of some preschool words and their meanings. See Table 2 for a list of word meanings recommended for attention, explanation, or instruction for children ages 3 to 5 years. [There are approximately 40 pages that make up these lists.”

 

 

 

 

 

Oral Language Development: Sounds….sounds into words.

Oral Language Development: Sounds…sounds into words.

I will use a Sound-Word-Sentence-Discourse framework to trace the development of oral language and its relationship to reading, beginning here with Sounds. Both the oral language development literature and the reading development literature are relevant. Taking the position that learning to read begins with oral language, an understanding of language development is critical.

We can trace the development of sounds and phonology (specifically, for our interests in early literacy, phonological awareness and the alphabetic principle)

Development
*discrimination and articulation of sounds
*phonological awareness
*the alphabetic principles (sound/letter relationships)

Sounds: Oral Language Development Literature
There are several relevant developmental progressions for “sounds” or “sounds into words”. Of course, children learn about “sounds” before they learn about “written” words, although they know a great deal about “oral” words before they can read them.

From the Oral Speech/Language Literature, we can trace the development of discrimination and articulation of sounds (phonetics). Note that children start using sounds in early infancy. Mastery of specific sounds develops over 5 years—from age 2 to 7–on average, beginning with easy to produce sounds (p, b, m). Mastery of particular sounds differs depending on the position in a word. See the links below for more specific details.

Development of articulation skills
http://www.playingwithwords365.com/2011/09/speech-articulation-development-whats-normal-what-isnt/
“Believe it or not, children begin to develop these skills starting at BIRTH! I know I know, babies are not born talking…but they are born listening and listening is the first step in learning how to produce speech sounds, which in turn will turn into meaningful words, phrases and sentences! If I remember correctly (I’ll go find the study and link it back here) children learn the sounds of their native language by NINE MONTHS OF AGE!…”

http://www.eps.n-cook.k12.il.us/epsweb/rosenberg/site/articulation.html
“Children develop the ability to produce speech sounds at different rates. For example, research shows that two year olds are 50-75% intelligible, while three-year olds are 75-100% intelligible. That means it’s normal if a 3-year old talks, and you only understand 3/4 of what he/she says…..”

http://morethanspeaking.wordpress.com/2013/04/08/articulation/
Articulation Development Chart

Commercial Product (I am not endorsing these products, simply noting that they are available to measure “sound” development.

http://www.pearsonclinical.com/language/products/100000079/goldman-fristoe-test-of-articulation-2-gfta-2.html
http://www.pearsonclinical.com/language/products/100000295/diagnostic-evaluation-of-articulation-and-phonology-deap.html#tab-pricing

Phonology—Sounds and Words: The Reading Literature
From the Reading Literature, we can trace the development of phonology (specifically, for our interests in early literacy, phonological awareness and the alphabetic principle)

From Louisa Cook Moats, Speech to Print: Language Essentials for Teachers, 2nd Edition, Brooks Publishing, 2010.

Chapter 2 (Phonetics: The Sounds of Speech) takes the reader through Reading and Spelling Development. Of particular interest are the stages of mastering the Alphabetic Principle outlined in a graphic based on Ehri’s [(1994) and Ehri and Snowling’s work (2004). (p. 11)

Prealphabetic (“Children do not understand that letters represent the sounds in words.”) to Early Alphabetic (letters correspond to the sounds that make up spoke words: typically at K age or about 5-5 ½). Subsequent stages are Later Alphabetic (recognition of chunks, grapheme-phoneme connections) and then Consolidated Alphabetic
rank orders 10 Phonological awareness tasks from easiest to most difficult and the percentage of 4 and 5 year olds able to complete each type of task successfully

Chapter 3 (Phonology: Speech Sounds in Use) provides a picture of the development of phonological awareness (pp. 56-59)
Table 3.2 (From Paulson, Lucy Hart (2004). The easiest task was blending syllables (84% for 4 year olds; 92% for 5 year olds); followed by segmenting syllables (62%-81%), rhyme detection (58%-74%), alliteration categorization (53%-71%); the remaining 6 skills fall below 50% for 4 year olds. Five year olds complete the following tasks above 50%–blending onset/rime, alliteration detecting and rhyme production. The final 3 skills: blending phonemes, segmenting onset/rime and segmenting phonemes were challenging for most 4 and 5 year olds.

And so…can we teach children about sounds and their relationship to print?
ASHA presentation on
Bringing Letter Sounds to Life: Merging Phonemic Awareness and Phonics
http://search.asha.org/default.aspx?q=Development%20of%20discrimiantion%20and%20articulation%20of%20sounds

Bringing Letter Sounds to Life: Merging Phonemic Awareness and Phonics
Presented by:
Marianne Nice M.S CCC-SLP
Amy Leone M.S.T. CCC-SLP

 

Early Language Development: An Overview

From the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association – Hearing and Understanding and “Talking”

http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart/

 Notice development across all categories:  sounds, words, sentences, discourse (stories and conversation)

Check the suggestions for what parents can notice and do to facilitate language development

Below are a few of the developmental milestone for each age group.  Check the site for additional information!

Birth to 1 Year

http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/01.htm

Notice the beginning of mastering “sounds”

*baby notices and uses “sounds”

*”babbling sounds” are more speech like (p, b, m)

*uses speech and non-crying sounds to get and keep attention

Year 1 to 2

http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/12/

Notice the beginning of interest in and responding to stories

Note the growth in vocabulary

Hearing and Understanding

Talking

  • Points to a few body parts when asked.
  • Follows simple commands and understands simple questions (“Roll the ball,” “Kiss the baby,” “Where’s your shoe?”).
  • Listens to simple stories, songs, and rhymes.
  • Points to pictures in a book when named.
  • Says more words every month.
  • Uses some one- or two- word questions (“Where kitty?” “Go bye-bye?” “What’s that?”).
  • Puts two words together (“more cookie,” “no juice,” “mommy book”).
  • Uses many different consonant sounds at the beginning of words.

Year 2 to 3

http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/23/

Notice the development of questioning; understanding the power of language

*Listens to and enjoys hearing stories for longer periods of time

*Has a word for almost everything

*Uses two- or three- words to talk about and ask for things.

*Uses k, g, f, t, d, and n sounds.

*Often asks for or directs attention to objects by naming them.

Year 3 to 4

http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/34/

Take note of developing conversation skills to both ask for and provide information

*Answers simple “who?”, “what?”, “where?”, and “why?” questions.

*Uses a lot of sentences that have 4 or more words.

Year 4 to 5

http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/45/

Using sounds, words, sentences and discourse to communicate

*Pays attention to a short story and answers simple questions about them.

*Tells stories that stick to topic.

*Uses sentences that give lots of details (“The biggest peach is mine”)

*Says most sounds correctly except a few like l, s, r, v, z, ch, sh, th.

*Says rhyming words.

Here are some links on Early Language/Literacy Development!

http://www.gse.harvard.edu/news-impact/2011/01/you-need-r-ee-d-to-read/?show=all

http://jennifischer.blogspot.com/2013/09/ten-for-tuesday-tot-school-early.html#comment-form   The letter B!

https://www.academia.edu/2263895/The_National_Early_Literacy_Panel_Report_and_classroom_instruction_Green_lights_caution_lights_and_red_lights  Green Light:  Alphabetic Knowledge, Phonological Awareness, and Oral Language

Where? Teaching kkids to read in the wide wide world

Here is a link to a post by a gifted kindergarten teacher who uses multiple resources to teach kindergarten children to read.  At the end of her post she writes:

“Learning to read is magical. I really enjoy the endless expressions my students make when they begin to realize they are reading words and interpreting illustrations. This is where I can really help enhance what my students discover. Learning is for everyone. Technology gives all my students a voice.”

 

Link

Where are we going?

 Over the next several months, this blog will focus on the earliest stages of literacy, beginning at the preschool level, moving into K-2, and then 3-5.  Our initial emphasis will be on the role that oral language development plays in literacy.    Even as children begin K and as they progress through grade 5, oral language will remain a focus.

 Over the course of weeks/months posts will look at language at the sound, word, sentence, and discourse levels, considering relationships between oral and written language.  There will always be the intent to translate what is known through research and experience into instruction/learning that leads to application across contexts.

 The next post will focus on sounds:  their development from birth through age 7 and how children begin to connect sounds and letters.  There is already a vast literature on “Decoding/phonics” instruction and, therefore, that literature will not be reviewed here.

 After that the focus shifts to words: vocabulary development and the impact of vocabulary development and instruction on reading text.

 At the sentence level, the blog will begin with ways to describe sentences and instructional ideas, programs, and approaches that seem to offer opportunities for success for beginning and struggling readers.

 And then the focus shift to discourse…..where the most promising work begins.  Posts will continue to focus on the talk-text-task relationships that lead to being a successful, engaged, life-lone reader.

 The plan is to post 2 or 3 times a week, with an occasional in-between post of links that seems to offer good ideas for instruction.

When to begin “learning” to read? At Birth!

When to begin “learning” to read? At Birth!.

When to begin “learning” to read? At Birth!

“Learning” to read begins with the development of oral language.  Here are some resources about early language development and its connection to early literacy and to becoming a successful reader. 

Oral Language Development

 Excerpts from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association website

Hearing and Understanding and “Talking”

http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart/

 Notice development across all the language categories:  sounds, words, sentences, discourse (stories and conversation)

Check the suggestions for what parents can notice and do to facilitate language development

Below are a few of the developmental milestone for each age group.  Check the site for additional information!

 Birth to 1 Year

http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/01.htm

Notice the beginning of mastering “sounds”

*baby notices and uses “sounds”

*”babbling sounds” are more speech like (p, b, m)

*uses speech and non-crying sounds to get and keep attention

 Year 1 to 2

http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/12/

Notice the beginning of interest in and responding to stories

Note the growth in vocabulary

Hearing and Understanding

Talking

  • Points to a few body parts when asked.
  • Follows simple commands and understands simple questions (“Roll the ball,” “Kiss the baby,” “Where’s your shoe?”).
  • Listens to simple stories, songs, and rhymes.
  • Points to pictures in a book when named.
  • Says more words every month.
  • Uses some one- or two- word questions (“Where kitty?” “Go bye-bye?” “What’s that?”).
  • Puts two words together (“more cookie,” “no juice,” “mommy book”).
  • Uses many different consonant sounds at the beginning of words.

 Year 2 to 3

http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/23/

Notice the development of questioning; understanding the power of language

*Listens to and enjoys hearing stories for longer periods of time

*Has a word for almost everything

*Uses two- or three- words to talk about and ask for things.

*Uses k, g, f, t, d, and n sounds.

*Often asks for or directs attention to objects by naming them.

 Year 3 to 4

http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/34/

Take note of developing conversation skills to both ask for and provide information

*Answers simple “who?”, “what?”, “where?”, and “why?” questions.

*Uses a lot of sentences that have 4 or more words.

 Year 4 to 5

http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/45/

Using sounds, words, sentences and discourse to communicate

*Pays attention to a short story and answers simple questions about them.

*Tells stories that stick to topic.

*Uses sentences that give lots of details (“The biggest peach is mine”)

*Says most sounds correctly except a few like l, s, r, v, z, ch, sh, th.

*Says rhyming words.

 Here are some links on Early Language/Literacy Development!

http://www.gse.harvard.edu/news-impact/2011/01/you-need-r-ee-d-to-read/?show=all

http://jennifischer.blogspot.com/2013/09/ten-for-tuesday-tot-school-early.html#comment-form   The letter B!

https://www.academia.edu/2263895/The_National_Early_Literacy_Panel_Report_and_classroom_instruction_Green_lights_caution_lights_and_red_lights  Green Light:  Alphabetic Knowledge, Phonological Awareness, and Oral Language

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